Local authorities are getting greater powers to tackle fly-tipping and litter as the first wave of measure come into force from the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act.
From June 7, fly-tipping becomes an arrestable offence with the most serious cases resulting in a maximum £50,000 fine or five years in prison.
Local Environment Minister Ben Bradshaw said: "The new rules will give local authorities more power to tackle environment crime, and make everyone think about the environment around them. So I hope they will use these new powers to deter people from dropping anything, anywhere at any time.
Those caught fly-tipping will also no longer be allowed to use the defence that they were acting under an employer's instructions.
There are also penalties for people who drop chewing gum or cigarette butts.
Ben Bradshaw added: "Gum droppers and smokers chucking away cigarette butts can be given on the spot fines of £50, which will soon go up to £75. So why risk being fined when it's so easy just to pop the butt or your gum in the bin?"