Drivers in London face £100 fines if passengers throw rubbish out of their cars after laws come into effect later this month.
From mid-June, councils across the capital will have power to issue vehicle owners with penalty charge notices for littering.
They will be able to use CCTV to note number plates and trace registered owners.
Councils previously had to prove beyond reasonable doubt who had thrown the litter, but have closed a legal loophole by introducing new laws.
Councillor Catherine West, chair of London Councils’ transport and environment committee, said: “Rubbish piled up at the side of the road after being flung from vehicles is a real eyesore.
“It’s anti-social and from now on councils who have to clean up the mess will be able to fine car owners regardless of who threw the rubbish.”